Archive for the ‘dx’ Category

New excellent links added.

There are some very good Ham Blogs and websites out there if you are prepared to take the time to search them down.

One person that always inspires me with his enthusiasm for Real HF Mobile radio, is Dave G4AKC.








Dave often takes off to the front of Blackpool promenade, on either his bike, or his recent electric trike towing a trailer load of equipment behind him, that puts most shack's to shame. His late night shift on the cold sea front, or early mornings well wrapped up, quite often produces some long path and rare DX surprises that you wouldn't get from the home QTH, due to a good signal bounce off the sea water and lower noise being out in the open making reception far easier.

The G4AKC website https://www.g4akc.co.uk/  where you can learn more about his exploits has now been added to my Blog  right hand panel "Sites that do it for me links".

Another good Blog link EI7GL for Ireland has also been updated in "My Blog List" link again on the right hand panel.

Magic Band Mid-Season Observations

courtesy: KC8RP FT8 Info

We are now half-way through this summer’s Sporadic-E season, normally the magic band’s best time of the year. The only exception to this being the winter months of those solar cycles that are robust enough to raise the F2 MUF up as far as 50MHz ... something that occurred for only two or three days during the peak of Solar Cycle 24.

Unfortunately, it really looks as if the old reliable bread and butter modes on 6m, CW and SSB, are fast going the way of the dodo bird, as very few signals on either of these modes have been heard here this summer. As speculated last year at this time, it seems as though the weak signal (WSJT) FT8 mode now reigns supreme on the band, which has come as a great disappointment to myself and many other diehard CW ops.

At the start of this year’s season I reluctantly decided to pay more attention to this mode and see if it could put any  new DXCC entities into my 6m log ... if so, it would be time well-spent.

For the past several years, my main 6m interest has focused on European or South / Central American openings, which are usually unpredictable and short-lived. As usual, most of the season’s openings have been domestic, with signals from the central and south-eastern states being the ones most often heard. Usually, signals during these openings are strong and fairly reliable and lend themselves to easy two-way work on either CW or SSB. For the vast majority of summer time openings, FT8 is not needed, as signals are not weak.

For some reason, the popularity of this weak-signal mode on 6m continues to grow in popularity even though signals are so strong! Where this mode really shines is on the short-lived long haul openings to EU or on similar long paths from the PNW, of which there have been very few this season.

With everyone crowded into a narrow passband of ~ 2kHz, it doesn’t take much to mess things up for your neighbours if you don’t think carefully about how your operating can affect other users of that small sliver of space.

One of the most common examples of poor operating skills that I see is the seemingly endless CQ. This is much easier to do on FT8 than with conventional modes, as the software used can do this automatically for you, every 15 seconds ... while you fiddle with something else in the shack. I’ve seen some nearby stations call CQ continuously for over 60 minutes at a time, with no replies. What this does is make it difficult for other nearby users to actually hear / decode any weak signals on the band that are being covered by the loud CQing station(s) during this entire span of time. Strong local signals can wreak considerable havoc with weak-signal mode software as it's just not designed to happily handle strong signals and do a good job of decoding weak ones at the same time! Please think about this if you are one of those long CQers ... you are not the only one trying to use the band.

Another observation has to do with 'sequencing'. FT8 users must decide if they will transmit on the ‘even’ or on the ‘odd’ 15-second sequence. If you, and all of your neighbours are loud with each other, then it makes sense that everyone is better off operating on the same sequence. This way, all locals are transmitting at the same time which means they are all listening at the same time as well ... nobody causes QRM for one another if everyone uses the same sequence.

This comes off the rails very easily when just one or two strong neighbours choose to transmit during the receive sequence being used by everyone else.

There has been a long-standing precedent for sequencing, established and utilized by meteor-scatter operators for several decades. It calls for stations on the eastern-most end of a path (Europeans for example) to transmit on ‘evens’ ... the ‘0-15’ and ‘30-45’ second segment of each minute. Stations on the western-end of the path (NA) transmit on the ‘odds’ ... ‘15-30’ and ‘45-60’ second portion of each minute. When looking towards JA later in the day, everything reverses for NA stations, as they now become the eastern-end of the path.

Some operators seem to get totally confused by this or don’t check to see what sequence is being used locally before starting to operate ... while some don’t really seem to care.

I’m not complaining about what a given amateur chooses to do but simply describing some of the roadblocks to better use of FT8 and why it is not necessarily very well-suited for 90% of the typical propagation seen on 6m Es.

Many of the newer stations often seem to be using poor or makeshift antenna systems on 6m and are often not able to hear stations responding to their CQs, which may be strong enough locally to disrupt reception for those that are able to hear weaker signals.

I have deliberately made a point of never calling CQ on FT8. From decades of CW DXing I have come to understand that it’s much easier to work DX, on any band, by spending your time listening ... and then calling when the time is right. It’s no different with FT8, yet I see CQs that go on forever. Some will argue that if nobody called CQ, then there would be nobody to hear, which is of course valid ... the reality is, most amateurs cannot resist calling CQ, especially DX stations who enjoy working a pileup. There seems to be no shortage of CQers and those seeking DX should take advantage of that fact.

One loud station was seen yesterday calling another for over 90 minutes-straight. Perhaps he had wandered away from his shack and had forgotten to ‘Halt Tx’ before leaving! FT8 users need to understand how to use their software efficiently.

As for PNW to EU propagation this summer, it has been almost non-existent although I have worked CT1HZE in Portugal and JW7QIA in Svalbard ... by listening ... listening ... and calling briefly, both on FT8. In both cases, signals were brief but strong enough for CW! During the short-lived appearance of the JW7, two NA stations were noted calling ‘CQ JW’ the entire time. Perhaps if they had spent this wasted time more wisely by listening, they would have worked JW.

I’m happy to report that Svalbard was a new DXCC entity for me on 6m, #88, and the first 'new one' in a few years.

It seems that when used sensibly, FT8 is a useful application to have in your DX toolbox ... but for most daily summer Es operation, it’s just not needed. CW or SSB is well up to the task most of the time, even for small stations. Where FT8 shines is on the very brief, often unstable, long haul (EU-NA or JA-NA) paths and then, only if your neighbours don’t do things that will get them into the naughty-corner!

Now, let’s see what the second half of the season has in store for the magic band .... maybe the best is yet to come.




The Enigmatic Heathkit CR-1 Crystal Radio

For the past several months my interest in ‘DX-crystal radio’ construction has been percolating once again. It began when I ran across an interesting description of Heathkit’s legendary CR-1, a double-tuned good performer and very much sought-after by collectors as well as by users. The article described one homebrewer’s attempt to duplicate the receiver and to learn more about the detector and antenna tuning ferrite-loaded coil's secrets.


When it comes to crystal radios, there is nothing revolutionary regarding the CR-1’s basic circuitry but for some odd reason, it has achieved cult-like status as well as high dollar value.


courtesy: Scotts Crystal Radios
I've been eager to get my mitts on one to see how it performs after reading of one DXer's fifty-eighth catch with his own CR-1!

The article that piqued my interest appears on 'Scott's Crystal Radios' website and makes for an inspirational read, eventually revealing the inside core arrangement of the ferrite-loaded tuned circuits via an actual X-ray of the device! By the way, if you are looking for a nice set of older headphones, Scott's website is the place to visit!






courtesy: Scott's Crystal Radios






Scott was eventually able to achieve performance equal to that of his borrowed CR-1, with his own slightly modified versions, all in a similar-sized footprint. Perhaps this is one reason why the CR-1 is so much sought-after, as good performance in a very small package is not the norm when it comes to crystal radios. It's usually a case of ‘the bigger, the better’ when it comes to performance.


A recent search of my junque box revealed several NIB ferrite loopsticks that would allow a potntial reproduction of this interesting circuit.


Several years ago I spent an eye-opening winter learning about DX crystal radios as up to that time I had always believed it would be impossible to hear anything other than strong local signals on a crystal radio. I quickly discovered that there was a very large Crystal Radio Yahoo Group where menbers were working at the leading edge of crystal radio design. I also found that the group sponsored an annual Crystal Radio DX Contest which inspired me to dig deeper.

It wasn’t too long before I decided to join the fun and attempt to build a crystal radio DX-machine but I was in for a few surprises and a long learning curve ... it seemed that hearing broadcast band ‘DX’ on a crystal radio (anything other than loud locals) was not going to be an easy task!

Over the course of several months I tried many types of variable capacitors, tank coil configurations and antenna tuning circuits. I even erected a dedicated antenna system for the various experimental circuits I was putting together ... an 'Inverted-L', 50’ straight up and 70’ horizontal, along with a ground rod connected to several buried radials.

I quickly learned about something I normally didn’t have to worry about when working with ‘active’ devices and that was overcoming system and component losses. In critical crystal radio design, it’s all about minimizing the losses in every stage and every component in the system since there are no amplifiers to help overcome these losses. Your system is only as good as the weakest link. In true crystal radio DXing, no active devices are permitted ... it’s just your crystal radio and the energy generated at some, hopefully far away, transmitter site!

After several months, I eventually ended up with a well-performing triple-tuned set that used lots of 'trapping' because of all of the very strong nearby signals here ... eight 50kW locals!



A description of the learning curve, with several do's and dont's to help new builders, can be found on my website here.

Back then, 80 stations were logged (from my location on Mayne Island in SW British Columbia) over the one-week Crystal Radio DX Contest.


CRYSTAL RADIO LOGBOOK


FRQ 
STATION
 LOCATION
POWER
540
CBK
WATROUS, SK
50KW
550
KARI
BLAINE, WA
2.5KW
560
KPQ
WENATCHEE, WA
5KW
570
KVI
SEATTLE, WA
5KW
580
KFXD
NAMPA, ID
5KW
580
KTMT
ASHLAND, OR
1KW
600
CKBD
VANCOUVER, BC
10KW
650
CISL
VANCOUVER, BC
10KW
670
KBOI
BOISE, ID
50KW
690
CBU
VANCOUVER, BC
50KW
730
CJNW
VANCOUVER, BC
50KW
750
KXL
PORTLAND, OR
20KW
770
CHQR
CALGARY, AB
50KW
780
KKOH
RENO, NV
50KW
790
KGMI
BELLINGHAM, WA
1KW
800
CKOR
PENTICTON, BC
500W
800
CHAB
MOOSEJAW, SK
10KW
810
KGO
SAN FRANCISCO, CA
50KW
820
KGNW
SEATTLE, WA
5KW
830
CKKY
WAINRIGHT, AB
3.5KW
840
KSWB
SEASIDE, OR
500W
840
CKBX
100 MILE HOUSE, BC
500W
850
KOA
DENVER, CO
50KW
860
KPAM
TROUTDALE, OR
10KW
870
KFLD
PASCO, WA
250W
880
KIXI
MERCER ISLAND, WA
10KW
880
COOL
EDMONTON, AB
50KW
890
CJDC
DAWSON CREEK, BC
10KW
900
CKMO
VICTORIA, BC
10KW
910
CKDQ
DRUMHELLER, AB
50KW
920
KXLY
SPOKANE, WA
5KW
930
KBAI
BELLINGHAM, WA
500W
940
CJGX
YORKTON, SK
50KW
950
KJR
SEATTLE, WA
50KW
960
CFAC
CALGARY, AB
50KW
980
CKNW
NEW WESTMINSTER, BC
50KW
1010
CBR
CALGARY, AB
50KW
1040
CKST
VANCOUVER, BC
50KW
1060
CKMX
CALGARY, AB
50KW
1070
CFAX
VICTORIA, BC
10KW
1090
KYCW
SEATTLE, WA
50KW
1130
CKWX
VANCOUVER, BC
50KW
1160
KSL
SALT LAKE CITY, UT
50KW
1170
KPUG
BELLINGHAM, WA
5KW
1180
KOFI
KALISPELL, MT
10KW
1190
KEX
PORTLAND, OR
50KW
1200
WOAI
SAN ANTONIO, TX
50KW
1210
KBSG
AUBURN, WA,
10KW
1210
KZTS
SUNNYSIDE, WA
1KW
1240
KGY
OLYMPIA, WA
1KW
1240
KOFE
ST. MARIES, ID
500W
1250
KKDZ
SEATTLE, WA
5KW
1250
KWSU
PULLMAN, WA
5KW
1260
CFRN
EDMONTON, AB
50KW
1260
KLYC
McMINVILLE, OR
850W
1270
CHAT
MEDICINE HAT, AB
10KW
1270
KTFI
TWIN FALLS, ID
1KW
1280
KIT
YAKIMA, WA
1KW
1290
KGVO
MISSOULA, MT
5KW
1290
KUMA
PENDLETON, OR
5KW
1290
KKSL
LAKE OSWEGO, OR
5KW
1300
KOL
SEATTLE, WA
5KW
1300
CJME
REGINA, SK
10KW
1310
CHLW
ST. PAUL, AB
10KW
1320
CHMB
VANCOUVER, BC
50KW
1340
KLKI
ANACORTES, WA
1KW
1360
KKMO
TACOMA, WA
5KW
1370
KAST
ASTORIA, OR
1KW
1410
CFUN
VANCOUVER, BC
50KW
1470
CJVB
VANCOUVER, BC
50KW
1510
KGA
SPOKANE, WA
50KW
1520
KKSN
OREGON CITY, OR
15KW
1530
KFBK
SACRAMENTO, CA
50KW
1550
KCCF
FERNDALE, WA
10KW
1590
KLIV
SAN JOSE, CA
5KW
1600
KVRI
BLAINE, WA
10KW
1620
KYIZ
RENTON, WA
1KW
1640
KPBC
LAKE OSWEGO, OR
1KW
1660
KXOL
BRIGHAM CITY, UT
1KW

Old notes indicate that there were 14 stations at S9 or higher, requiring heavy trapping to hear anything close to their frequencies. 

My recent interest made me wonder what the situation is today when it comes to the number of strong local ‘blowtorch’ signals, surely the bane of all crystal radio DXers? Although there have been a few changes over the years, a quick scan of the band during the prime DX evening hours found that although one of the blowtorch signals (at 600kHz) was now gone, another had appeared at 1200kHz ... sadly no net difference.

The top end of the band, always a prime area for good skywave DX, is unfortunately still dominated by a huge signal from KVRI just across the water near the Canadian / U.S. border. If KVRI were silent, the top end would be a wonderfully quiet hunting-ground for new catches. The new local blowtorch (CJRJ) on 1200 kHz will now cause problems for the middle of the band, which was always a good region for DX.

So it seems overall, there hasn’t been a huge change here other than in the middle of the band. It looks as though there are still some good watering-holes to be had but several traps will still be needed in any new system.

Once my present radio-bench project is finished (a '36 RK-39 crystal power oscillator) I’m looking forward to more research and design of a couple of new systems, starting with something similar to the CR-1 as well as some experimentation with toroidal coils. I always find the research and planning phase of any new project more interesting and fulfilling than the actual construction and implementation! Hopefully I’ll have something ready for the fall DX season!

Thanks to VA7MM, I will also have the loan of an original CR-1 next winter to make comparisons to any clone that I might build!

If building a DX-crystal radio is something that might interest you, there are several great websites offering inspiration and helpful info. The links for these may be found at the bottom of my own crystal radio page. As well, there are two active crystal radio groups on Facebook, where daily two-way discussion can be had.

Perhaps, with enough new interest, we can even revive the annual Crystal Radio DX Contest!

Top Ten FT8 Advantages For Slackers

We just got back from a very enjoyable trip to Roatan Island that included 8 friends vacationing together. The snorkeling and beach time were lots of fun. We stayed at the Seaside Inn, highly recommended.

Bob working SSB on Roatan Island as K0NR/HR9

Of course, I took along some ham radio gear and made radio contacts from the island using the Slacker DXpedition method. The station was a Yaesu FT-991 driving an end-fed half wave wire antenna, cut for either 20m or 40m. I operating as K0NR/HR9 and my co-slacker Denny was on the air as KB9DPF/HR9. (Reciprocal licensing info is available from the Radio Club De Honduras.) We started out on SSB but that was tough going with poor propagation, so we soon found that FT8 was more effective.

Screen shot of WSJT-X running FT8 mode.

We were pleasantly surprised with how well FT8 worked out for us as it was very compatible with the Slacker DXpedition philosophy. Here are the Top Ten Reasons to Use FT8 for Island Time DX:

  • You can listen to your “island time” playlist while working DX.
  • You don’t annoy your fellow vacationers by screaming into the microphone.
  • You don’t have to worry about remembering proper phonetics.
  • You can read the other station’s QRZ page while the computer completes the contact.
  • You have time to visit the restroom without missing any contacts.
  • You can upload your log to LoTW while operating.
  • You have time to mix up a rum punch while making QSOs.
  • It doesn’t matter if you slur your speech a bit due to that extra rum punch.
  • If the run rate is really slow, the pc screensaver will kick in to entertain you.
  • You can actually make contacts when propagation sucks.

The post Top Ten FT8 Advantages For Slackers appeared first on The KØNR Radio Site.

Some Summer Short Wave Listening

courtesy:americanradiohistory



Over the past few months I’ve spent some time tuning around the international shortwave bands.


I vividly recall how jam-packed these bands were when I first discovered the magic of radio, back in the peak years of Solar Cycle 19. Much has changed in this part of the radio spectrum since then, but after having read so many dire comments describing the demise of international SW broadcasting, I was pleasantly surprised at what I discovered.



Although there are certainly not the large numbers of stations there once were, there is still a large amount of activity to be found throughout the various bands allocated to international SW broadcasting.


courtesy: https://communicationwhiz.com/short-wave-radios-guide/

Trying to keep track of station schedules and frequencies is a hobby unto itself but now made easier with the availability of so many online information sources. As when younger, I found the best way to stay organized was to keep a SW logbook, eventually settling on a simple ‘diary’ format which is still evolving.



Its next refinement will be an additional notebook having separate pages devoted to each individual frequency within a given SW band. This will allow for updating frequency information from various postings of the daily online ‘heard’ reports.

I’ve always had a great interest in QSLs and collecting cards was one of the things that initially attracted me to SW radio back as a pre-teenaged DXer. For me, not much has changed in the last several decades and I still enjoy QSLs ... the real, traditional cards, as opposed to the now popular e-card. For me, an e-card just doesn’t have much appeal for some reason but for many others, they work just fine.

As I slowly re-learn much of what I had forgotten about SWL’ing, I discovered that there are still many SW broadcasters that will acknowledge a reception report with a real paper card ... just like the good old days!

If you are keen on doing some serious listening, I cannot recommend the WRTH highly enough.





Studying the latest WRTH revealed the QSL policies of most international as well as domestic SW broadcasters as well as contact information. It is a superb annual reference and well worth the investment! With this information in hand, my listening has become more focused on recording and submitting reception reports to those stations still practicing the courtesy of acknowledging reports with a traditional QSL. Many stations also issue an e-card, but these are of little interest to me at present.




With a small amount of spring-summer time devoted to SW listening, I generated and submitted a few reception reports along with linked audio files on my website ... so far, the following QSLs have arrived:


Radio Exterior de Espana
15520 kHz - Noblejas, Spain

Radio Free Asia
9950 kHz - via IBB on Tinian Island, S. Pacific


All India Radio (AIR)

9865 kHz - Bengaluru, India

DX Clube Sem Fronteiras Broadcast via WRMI 7730 kHz, Miami

T8WH - 9965 kHz Palau, South Pacific

HSK9 - 5875 kHz Udon Thani, Thailand
Radio Liangyou - Hong Kong

9275 kHz via Bocaue, Philippines site

Radio Romania - 9730 kHz - Bucharest, Romania
Radio Nikkei 2
3935 kHz - Chiba, Japan

I’ll do an upcoming blog on some of the great information and online sites to support international SW listening activities.

6m … Where’d The Magic Go?


This summer's 6m sporadic-E (Es) DX season is now well past the half-way mark and things have been different ... a lot different. For me, the past 40 plus summers of activity on the magic band have always been interesting, if not down right exciting ... particularly when the band opens to Europe from the west coast.



These usually very short-lived paths have been my main interest for the past several years and the bread and butter mode is normally a fast CW exchange, usually taking less than 20 seconds before signals would vanish, as the always quirky west coast path to Europe would jump to another region. But this has all changed dramatically.

As well, it seems that this summer, the normal SSB and CW modes have been largely abandoned by a huge percentage of the crowd, in favor of FT8, the weak-signal digital QSO mode originally developed with 6m in mind.

I have seen many strong openings involving loud FT8 signals from various parts of North America but when tuning down to the CW/SSB section of the band, found nothing but ghostly silence! Gone are the familiar voices of friends met every summer for decades or the recognition of an old friend's fist on CW ... for me personally, most of the magic was missing this summer. I wonder if this is all part of the natural evolution of amateur radio or does the FT8 revolution signal the long term fate for many of the older conventional modes?

There appears to be a lot of new activity brought to the band by this mode, and many are experiencing the magic band for the first time. I have heard at least two dozen or more VE7 calls on 6m this summer that I have never heard before and this is a very positive thing! From what I can tell, many of the new stations on the band may have makeshift or simple antennas, such as verticals or dipoles and not something larger and are just getting their feet wet on the band.

FT8 allows for two-way weak signal work (a few db below audible limits) that the traditional modes would not support, and simpler stations, without big antennas, can now join the fun. I often see many of the newer stations calling CQ but not hearing their numerous replies, which leads me to think that their receive-capability does not yet match their transmit-erp ... perhaps they just have a lot of local noise or are running more power than they can properly deal with, something they should think about. Often the new FT8 stations will continually CQ, sometimes as long as 90 minutes at a time and create a lot of unnecessary and waterfall obliterating QRM on the band for those that do have good antennas and can hear what they do not. I'll do another blog later regarding FT8 on 6m, and what I have observed this summer.

Here on the west coast, up until last summer, it was fairly normal to have a few short-lived Es openings to Europe. You had to always be on your toes to catch these as they would vanish as suddenly as they appeared. The best of these was back in June of 2012 when a mid-morning opening produced 31 CW contacts in DL, F, SP, CT, ON, GM, IT, LZ, EI, G, S5, I and EA8. Nine new countries were put in the log that morning as the Es clouds danced around, shifting the propagation from one country to another, every other minute. This was the magic band at its best!

Like last summer, this year has produced almost zero trans-Atlantic propagation from VE7 land, other than contacts with CT1 and EA8, both on FT8. Perhaps some external factors are changing the band enough that this path will vanish permanently ... only time will tell. 
Dave, K7RWT, recently pondered if it may have something to do with the north magnetic pole migration over the past several years as it moves to the north-northwest at ~60km per year.

Track the pole's movement here.
Most mornings, the Europeans are into the east coast early, often times making into the central states and occasionally into the southwestern states:

July 18th courtesy: http://www.on4kst.org/chat/index.php
Later in the afternoon, it has not been unusual to see widespread JA to North America action, usually going straight overhead and as far back as the New England states and down to Florida!

July 20th courtesy: http://www.on4kst.org/chat/index.php

There have been several openings between here and JA, sometimes lasting for several hours. So far I've worked about 200 JAs this summer and judging by the flood of daily QSLs arriving from Japan, many are newcomers to the band (the FT8 effect?), often indicating that I was their 'first VE' contact on 6m.



Unlike the west coast to Europe openings, the JA-NA path appears to be growing, this summer particularly ... perhaps it's just those extra few db provided by FT8 that is responsible.

One particularly interesting 'opening' from here happened in the wee hours, starting just after 2300 local time and ending just after 0200, as all west coast operators were sawing logs. A morning check of my FT8 decodes indicated many strong signals from Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea and Hong Kong. I'm sorry that I missed out as the VR2 would have been a new country for me.

Overnight decodes July 8-9
 The non-JA stations heard were:

BM6GJL PL02
HL1BRU PM37
HL2IFR PM37
BG4QNE PM01
VR2VAZ OL72
BV2FB PL05
BV6CC PL03 

BV1EK PL05
BM3GFU PL04


Thanks to Paul, K7CW, for doggedly sorting through my all-night decode file which may be viewed in full here.

With just a couple of weeks left in the normal Es season, it will be interesting to see if FT8's extra few db will extend it longer than usual!

Trouble Free HF Antenna For The Apartment Dwelling Ham

Unfortunately we all know of or hear about hams that have given up all hope of getting on the air, once moving into an apartment or condo, where antennas are normally prohibited. One enterprising local amateur has combined early established antenna fundamentals along with sound engineering, to arrive at an elegant and highly successful solution. If you are also a 'location challenged' amateur, it may just be the thing that will help you, and others, take back your hobby and get on the air!

John, VE7AOV, has been operating from his apartment, in the heart of the very large and noisy greater Vancouver, for several years now ... not simply 'operating', but thriving, from his cozy fourth-floor apartment radio station. The wallpaper shown below would not usually be expected to grace the shack walls where antennas are not permitted!





It's soon apparent that John has also overcome the usual problem of noise ingression, from every appliance and random RFI generator in the complex. This is no lucky fluke but all by design, and delivered via an all but invisible classic antenna system made of #26 wire and a few Starbuck's stir-sticks!

600 ohm #26 balanced line

I'll let John tell you a bit more before sending you to his fascinating website, Intuitive Electronics, where you can learn more about his system and the engineering behind his successful, low-noise installation.

When it comes to a high frequency ham station, the antenna alternative chosen by most apartment dwellers is no antenna at all. The design here is a wisp of an antenna that bothers no one and which can work Japan, Australia, France, European and Asian Russia, the Caribbean, Central America, Polynesia and South America from the Pacific coast of Canada. It is a simple solution for apartment dwellers, it is a cheap solution and it causes no t.v.i. or other r.f. problems. It is far preferable to the alternative selected by so many fellow apartment dwellers: no antenna at all.

An implication that it seems to be impossible to rid from the minds of fellows using a Marconi antenna is that they are not just pumping 100 watts of r.f. into their antenna but that they are also pumping that same 100 watts of r.f. into their ground, that is to say the building’s wiring, the safety ground wiring. R.f. in the safety ground is well coupled into the power and neutral conductors of a residence and, in North American code, is even hard connected to the neutral line at the service entrance. The house wiring becomes part of the antenna system.

The ground wiring and everything connected to it is every bit as much a part of the antenna as is the live element. Both radiate just the same amount of r.f. power, fellows. The ground wiring along with every electrical power consumer in the building is worked against the live element. Thinking of what is connected to ground in your house is thinking about one side of your antenna. It’s not just appliances that get the “benefit” of r.f. The land line telephone system, the cable television system, the garage door opener, the security lights and…you name it. They are all “feeling” that 100W of r.f. With regard to r.f., there is no distinction whatsoever to be made between “hot” and “ground”.

You know the reason why vertical antennas have gained a reputation for being noisy on receive now, too. Most verticals are Marconi antennas. Both the safety ground and the neutral serve all the houses in the neighbourhood. The receiver is wired into the electrical appliances of the entire neighbourhood.

This radio station, located four stories above grade and in a wooden building full of apartments would be a worst case for r.f. in “ground”. This station has no r.f. in the station. It has no r.f. in “ground”.

The station has no interference issues. The Building Manager, the Building Superintendent and the administrator for this building’s cablevision have been aware of the station from the beginning. There has not been a single complaint of t.v.i. or any other complaint about the station. That’s a clean record extending back to 2006. There are no red faced, spluttering tenants hammering on the door of this station! At this station, all the r.f. produced by the transmitter makes its appearance out on the an­tenna. The radio station’s r.f. is not referenced to station ground. Station ground “knows nothing” about the r.f. being generated.

In the present case, that is to say a station to be operated in an apartment building, it is required to have an antenna that is “invisible”. Now it’s not possible to achieve that literally but at least the antenna should be so inconsiderable that there will be no complaints from neighbours about having to look at it. The antenna here is made of #26 A.W.G. wire. That’s wire that is 0.40mm, 0.016 of an inch, in diameter. Four stories up, it’s difficult to see the antenna and that’s even when knowing where to look for it. Part of the antenna’s run is through trees and in among the tree branches it pretty much is invisible. It does not annoy neighbours by casting a shadow; there is no shadow.

In spite if the naysayers, John's small gauge antenna has survived years of winter storms, regular occurrences here on Canada's western edge ... simply because it presents such a low cross-section compared to most conventional antenna wires.

To read more about enjoying your hobby again from your new 'restricted' location and more than likely, learn something new about old fundamentals, give John's website a very close inspection ... there is much wisdom and many gems to be found, even if you don't live in an apartment!

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