## What Do VHF and UHF Mean?

Recently, I engaged in a discussion about a UHF (Ultra High Frequency) radio. It seems a ham was complaining that someone had advertised an 800 MHz radio, describing it as “UHF”. His issue was that in land mobile radio, UHF is commonly used to refer to radios in the 380 to 500-ish MHz range. I disagreed with him, saying that 800 MHz is in the UHF range I was using the ITU definition of UHF, which is any frequency between 300 MHz to 3 GHz. The disagreement was not a big deal but it did cause some confusion. (Of course, I was right and he was wrong, most definitely.)

This got me thinking about how we toss around these terms quite loosely, even though they have precise definitions. Let’s start with the basics, the ITU definitions of radio spectrum.

 LF Low Frequency 30 to 300 kHz MF Medium Frequency 300 kHz to 3 MHz HF High Frequency 3 MHz to 30 MHz VHF Very High Frequency 30 MHz to 300 MHz UHF Ultra High Frequency 300 MHz to 3 GHz SHF Super High Frequency 3 GHz to 30 GHz

You can see that the basic scheme divides up the spectrum into decades (factors of ten), aligned with frequencies that start with 3 (e.g., 3 MHz, 30 MHz, 300 MHz). If we map the amateur bands onto this system, we see that the bands from 80m (3.5 to 4.0 MHz) through 10m (28-29.7 MHz) fall into the HF range, as expected. Note that 10m almost qualifies as a VHF band, coming in just shy of the 30 MHz limit. That band does have some VHF tendencies. The 160m band (1.8 to 2.0 MHz) actually falls into the MF range even though many of us just think of it as HF.

Let’s take a look at how the US amateur bands line up with this scheme.

There are three VHF bands: 6m (50 to 54 MHz), 2m (144 to 148 MHz) and 1.25m (222 to 225 MHz). The UHF range includes the 70 cm (420 to 450 MHz), 33 cm (902 to 928 MHz), 23 cm (1240 to 1300 MHz), and 13 cm (2300 to 2450 MHz) bands.

The two most commonly used bands in the VHF/UHF region are 2m and 70cm. These bands are home for many FM repeaters, FM simplex, SSB simplex, and plenty of other modes. Common dualband transceivers, both mobile and handheld, operate on the 2m and 70cm bands. These radios are so common that we often refer to them as VHF/UHF dualband radios. Accordingly, you will often hear hams refer to the 2m band as simply VHF and the 70cm band as UHF, as if VHF means 2 meters and UHF means 70 cm. I know I’ve been guilty of saying “let’s switch over to VHF” when I really mean “let’s go to the 2m band.” The 2m band is certainly VHF but VHF does not always mean 2 meters. Similarly, we might say “I’ll call you on the UHF repeater” when it would be more precise to say “I’ll call you on 440 MHz.”

Many times being loose with terminology doesn’t matter but there are times when using the right words can make a difference. Think about this the next time you are referring to a particular frequency band.

73 Bob K0NR

The post What Do VHF and UHF Mean? appeared first on The KØNR Radio Site.

## Ham Radio School Does Video!

I’ve been teaching ham radio license classes with our local radio club for many years now using the Ham Radio School books, written by my friend Stu Turner (W0STU). We use a fast-paced two-day format that strives for efficient learning…go fast but have the students actually learn something. Towards that end, we were frustrated with the existing license books and online material available: they either just “taught the exam” or overwhelmed the student with too much detail. Stu ended up writing the Technician license book that solves this problem. Is easy to read and covers just enough of the material so that the student actually learns about ham radio.

Now Ham Radio School has moved to the next level, offering an online Technician class based on high-quality video training. Stu is an excellent instructor and very competent at explaining the key concepts, so the videos are easy to watch and digest. Different people have different learning styles, so the Ham Radio School learning system includes the highly successful Technician book, online videos, and an extensive set of support materials on the hamradioschool.com website. Of course, these different elements are integrated together and present the ham radio concepts in a consistent manner.

Stu has developed a video production system that really works, using professional computer graphics tools. The videos are easy to watch, proceeding at a decent pace. If you miss something, you can always back up the presentation and look at it again.

You can try out the first four Technician lessons at no charge and then decide if this approach works for you. The entire video course is available for an introductory price of \$15.95. (The Ham Radio School book is available for \$19.95). Depending on your learning style, you might just want to read the book, view the video class, or do both. Your choice.

73 Bob K0NR

Disclosure: I have contributed content to the Ham Radio School website, provided technical consulting on the General License class book, and have received compensation for this work.

The post Ham Radio School Does Video! appeared first on The KØNR Radio Site.

The Technician license is your gateway to the worldwide excitement of Amateur Radio, and the very best emergency communications capability available!

We are once again offering our highly-successful Technician License Class in Black Forest, Colorado.

• Multiple-choice exam, No Morse Code Required
• Learn to operate on the ham bands, 10 meters and higher
• Learn to use the many VHF/UHF FM repeaters in Colorado
• Find out how to participate in emergency communications

### Schedule: in-person plus online

Sat   Oct 15    9:00 am – 3:30 pm In Person
Sun  Oct 16    4:00 – 5:30 pm Online (Zoom)
Tue   Oct 18    6:00 – 8:00 pm Online (Zoom)
Sat   Oct 22    9:00 am – 3:00pm In Person (includes Exam Session)

In-person sessions are held at the Black Forest Fire & Rescue Station 1, 11445 Teachout Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80908

Registration fee: \$30 adults, \$20 under age 18
Note that the FCC now charges a \$35 license fee, payable after you pass the license exam.
Students must have the required study guide: Ham Radio School Technician License Course, 2022 – 2026

### Register

To register for the class, go to:

Any questions, contact Bob Witte KØNR [email protected]

The Technician license is your gateway to the world-wide excitement of Amateur Radio, and the very best emergency communications capability available!

We are once again offering our highly-successful Technician License Class in Monument, Colorado.

• Multiple-choice exam, No Morse Code Required
• Learn to operate on the ham bands, 10 meters and higher
• Learn to use the many VHF/UHF FM repeaters in Colorado
• Find out how to participate in emergency communications

## Schedule

Online + In-Person in Monument, Colorado

Sat   April 2    1 – 5 PM In Person

Sun  April 3    1 – 4 PM Online

Tue  April 5    6 – 8:30 PM Online

Sat   April 9    1 – 5 PM In Person (includes Exam)

Online sessions will be held using Zoom.

The in-person sessions will be at Woodmoor Community Center (Woodmoor Barn) in Monument, CO.

Registration fee: \$30 adults, \$20 under age 18

Students must have the required study guide:

Third Edition, 2018 – 2022

## Register

To register for the class, go to:

Any questions, contact Bob Witte KØNR [email protected]

The Technician Class License is the entry-level ham radio license in the USA. The next step up is the General Class License which provides operating privileges on the high-frequency bands. If you want to work the world with ham radio, you should seriously consider going for the General license.

The Tri-Lakes Monument Radio Association is offering a blended (online and in-person) license class to assist you in moving up to General. The class starts on Nov 6th and will have five sessions: two in-person sessions in Monument, CO plus three online sessions via Zoom.  The final session is in-person and includes the FCC exam. (Complete schedule listed below.)

The General License provides access to regional and worldwide communications on the HF bands via ionospheric skip, greatly expanding operational capabilities!

• Live equipment demonstrations and activities
• Learn to operate on the HF bands, 10 Meters to 160 Meters
• Gain a deeper understanding of radio electronics and theory
• Take the next step with antennas, amplifiers, digital modes

The registration fee is \$30 (\$20 for those under 18 years of age). In addition, students must have the required study guide: HamRadioSchool.com General License Course,
Third Edition, effective 2019 – 2023, \$24.95. A current FCC Technician License is required for registration.

For questions, email: [email protected]

### Schedule

`Session 1, Sat Nov 6, 1-5 pm:  In-Person, Tri-Lakes Chamber of Commerce Meeting Room, Monument, CO. Ch.Ø-3 instruction`
`On-Demand Video Lesson (online video at your convenience).  Ch.4 instruction`
`Session 2, Tue Nov 9, 6-7 pm:  Live Zoom meeting.  Ch.1-4 review and Q&A`
`Session 3, Thur Nov 11, 6-8:15 pm:  Live Zoom meeting.  Ch.5 instruction`
`Session 4, Sat Nov 13, 1-5 pm:  Live Zoom meeting.  Ch.6 instruction`
`Session 5, Sat Nov 20, 1-5 pm:  In-Person, Tri-Lakes Chamber of Commerce Meeting Room, Monument, CO.  Wrap-up, review, VE Exam session.`

The Technician Class License is the entry-level ham radio license in the USA. The next step up is the General Class License which provides operating privileges on the high-frequency bands. If you want to work the world with ham radio, you should seriously consider going for the General license.

The Tri-Lakes Monument Radio Association is offering a blended (online and in-person) license class to assist you in moving up to General. The class starts on Nov 6th and will have five sessions: two in-person sessions in Monument, CO plus three online sessions via Zoom.  The final session is in-person and includes the FCC exam. (Complete schedule listed below.)

The General License provides access to regional and worldwide communications on the HF bands via ionospheric skip, greatly expanding operational capabilities!

• Live equipment demonstrations and activities
• Learn to operate on the HF bands, 10 Meters to 160 Meters
• Gain a deeper understanding of radio electronics and theory
• Take the next step with antennas, amplifiers, digital modes

The registration fee is \$30 (\$20 for those under 18 years of age). In addition, students must have the required study guide: HamRadioSchool.com General License Course,
Third Edition, effective 2019 – 2023, \$24.95. A current FCC Technician License is required for registration.

For questions, email: [email protected]

### Schedule

`Session 1, Sat Nov 6, 1-5 pm:  In-Person, Tri-Lakes Chamber of Commerce Meeting Room, Monument, CO. Ch.Ø-3 instruction`
`On-Demand Video Lesson (online video at your convenience).  Ch.4 instruction`
`Session 2, Tue Nov 9, 6-7 pm:  Live Zoom meeting.  Ch.1-4 review and Q&A`
`Session 3, Thur Nov 11, 6-8:15 pm:  Live Zoom meeting.  Ch.5 instruction`
`Session 4, Sat Nov 13, 1-5 pm:  Live Zoom meeting.  Ch.6 instruction`
`Session 5, Sat Nov 20, 1-5 pm:  In-Person, Tri-Lakes Chamber of Commerce Meeting Room, Monument, CO.  Wrap-up, review, VE Exam session.`

## Perfect Straight-Key Morse Code? Can It Be Made Without Machines?

What is the proper (and most efficient) technique for creating Morse code by hand, using a manual Morse code key?
Ham radio operators find Morse code (and the CW mode, or Continuous Wave keying mode) very useful, even though Morse code is no longer required as part of the licensing process.
Morse code is highly effective in weak-signal radio work.  And, Preppers love Morse code because it is the most efficient way to communicate when there is a major disaster that could wipe out the communications infrastructure.
While this military film is antique, the vintage information is timeless, as the material is applicable to Morse code, even today.  This film has the answer to the question, “Can a person craft perfect Morse code by straight key, without the help of a computer or machine?
The International Morse Code (sometimes referred to as CW in amateur radio jargon because a continuous wave is turned on and off with the long and short elements of the Morse code characters) is a type of character encoding that transmits telegraphic information using rhythm. Morse code uses a standardized sequence of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a given message. The short and long elements can be formed by sounds, marks, or pulses, in on off keying and are commonly known as dots and dashes or, dits and dahs. The speed of Morse code is measured in words per minute (WPM) or characters per minute, while fixed-length data forms of telecommunication transmission are usually measured in baud or bps.
Why is it called Morse code? This character encoding was devised by Samuel F. B. Morse, the creator of the electric telegraph. This Morse code came in two flavors, in the beginning years of its usage. One was in use by the railroads of America, and is known as American Morse Code. And, there is a unified, internationally-used version (adopted by radio operators), now known as the International Morse Code. Now, when most people refer to Morse code, or CW, they mean, International Morse Code.
Currently, the most popular use of Morse code is by amateur radio operators, although it is no longer a requirement for amateur licensing in many countries. In the professional field, pilots and air traffic controllers are usually familiar with Morse code and require a basic understanding. Navigational aids in the field of aviation, such as VORs and NDBs, constantly transmit their identity in Morse code.
Morse code is designed to be read by humans without a decoding device, making it useful for sending automated digital data in voice channels. For emergency signaling, Morse code can be sent by way of improvised sources that can be easily keyed on and off, making Morse code one of the most versatile methods of telecommunication in existence.
73 de NW7US dit dit

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