Interested in Amateur Radio Digital Mode FT8 Operations?
A VISUAL + AUDIO AIR CHECK OF DIGITAL MODE FT8 QSOs, ON THE 30-METER BAND
Here is a video capture of the reception and transmission of many digital FT8-mode amateur radio high-frequency (HF; Shortwave) communication signals. This video is a front-seat view of the software operation performed at the radio room of amateur radio operator, NW7US, Tomas Hood.
The software packages demonstrated are installed and operational on a modern personal computer. The computer is connected to an Icom IC-7610 radio transceiver, controlled by the software. While there is no narration in the video, the video provides an opportunity for you to see first-hand how typical FT8 operations are performed. The signals can be heard.
The frequency used for the FT8 communication in this video is on or about 10.136 MHz, in the 30-Meter shortwave amateur radio allocation (or, band). As can be seen, the 30-Meter band was active at this time of day (0720 UTC, onward–local nighttime).
In this video you see (and hear) NW7US make two-way contacts, or QSOs, with stations from around the country and the world.
There are amateur radio operators within the amateur radio community who regard the FT8 digital mode (FT8 stands for “Franke-Taylor design, 8-FSK modulation“, and refers to the mode created by Joe Taylor, K1JT and Steve Franke, K9AN) as robotic (automatic, automated, and unattended) computer-to-computer communications, and not ‘true’ human communications–thus negating the spirit of ham radio. In other words, FT8, in their opinion, is not real amateur radio. While they pontificate about supposed automated computer communications, many of those holding this position have not installed and configured the software, nor tried communicating with the FT8 digital mode. They have perhaps formed their anti-FT8 opinion in a vacuum of knowledge. (This writer has other issues with FT8, but not on this point–see below)
As you watch the video linked in this article, consider these concepts:
+ A QSO is defined (as per common knowledge–see below) as the exchange of at least the minimum information needed as set by the requirements of a particular award, or, as is defined by law–for instance, a QSO would have at least an exchange of the legal call sign assigned to the radio station and/or control operator, the location of the station making the transmission, and a signal report of some kind about the signal received from the other transmitter at the other end of the QSO.
+ Just how much human involvement is required to make a full FT8 QSO? Does WSJT-X software run all by itself, with no human control? Is WSJT-X a robot, in the sense that it picks a frequency, then initiates or answers a CQ call automatically, or is it just powerful digital-mode software that still requires human control?
The video was captured from the screen of the PC running the following software packages interacting together as a system:
+ WSJT-X: The primary software featuring the digital mode, FT8. (See below for some background on WSJT-X software.)
+ JTAlert: Provides several audio and visual alert types based on decoded Callsigns within WSJT-X.
+ Log4OM, Version 2: A full-featured logging program, which integrates well with WSJT-X and JTAlert.
+ Win4IcomSuite: A full-featured radio controlling program which can remote control rigs, and provide control through virtual communication port-sharing.
+ Com0Com: The Null-modem emulator allows you to create an unlimited number of virtual COM port pairs and use any pair to connect one COM port based application to another. Each COM port pair provides two COM ports. The output to one port is the input from other port and vice versa.
As mentioned, above, the radio used for the communication of FT8 at the station, NW7US, is an Icom IC-7610 transceiver. The antenna is an off-center fed dipole that is over 200 feet in total length (end-to-end measurement).
WSJT-X is a computer program used for weak-signal radio communication between amateur radio operators, or used by Shortwave Radio Listeners (SWLers; SWL) interested in monitoring the FT8 digital communications between amateur radio operators. The program was initially written by Joe Taylor, K1JT with Steve Franke, K9AN, but is now open source and is developed by a small team. The digital signal processing techniques in WSJT-X make it substantially easier for amateur radio operators to employ esoteric propagation modes, such as high-speed meteor scatter and moonbounce.
WSJT-X implements communication protocols or “modes” called FST4, FST4W, FT4, FT8, JT4, JT9, JT65, Q65, MSK144, and WSPR, as well as one called Echo for detecting and measuring your own radio signals reflected from the Moon. These modes were all designed for making reliable, confirmed QSOs under extreme weak-signal conditions. JT4, JT9, and JT65 use nearly identical message structure and source encoding (the efficient compression of standard messages used for minimal QSOs). They use timed 60-second Transmit/Rreceive (T/R) sequences synchronized with UTC (Universal Time, Coordinated). JT4 and JT65 were designed for Earth-Moon-Earth communications (EME, or, moonbounce) on the Very-High Frequency (VHF), Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) and microwave bands. JT9 is optimized for the Medium-Frequency (MF) and High-Frequency (HF) bands. It is about 2 dB more sensitive than JT65 while using less than 10% of the bandwidth. Q65 offers submodes with a wide range of T/R sequence lengths and tone spacings.FT4 and FT8 are operationally similar but use T/R cycles only 7.5 and 15 seconds long, respectively. MSK144 is designed for Meteor Scatter on the VHF bands. These modes offer enhanced message formats with support for nonstandard call signs and some popular contests. (The MSK in MSK144 stands for, Multiple Frequency Shift Keying.)
FST4 and FST4W are designed particularly for the Low-Frequency (LF) and MF bands. On these bands, their fundamental sensitivities are better than other WSJT-X modes with the same sequence lengths, approaching the theoretical limits for their rates of information throughput. FST4 is optimized for two-way QSOs, while FST4W is for quasi-beacon transmissions of WSPR-style messages. FST4 and FST4W do not require the strict, independent time synchronization and phase locking of modes like EbNaut.
As described more fully on its own page, WSPR mode implements a protocol designed for probing potential propagation paths with low-power transmissions. WSPR is fully implemented within WSJT-X, including programmable band-hopping.
What is a QSO?
Under the title, CONTACTS, at the Sierra Foothills Amateur Radio Club’s 2014 Technician Class webpage, https://www.hsdivers.com/Ham/Mod15.html, they teach,
An amateur radio contact (called a QSO), is an exchange of info between two amateur radio stations. The exchange usually consists of an initial call (CQ = call to all stations). Then, a response from another amateur radio operator, and usually at least a signal report.
Contacts can be limited to just a minimal exchange of call signs & signal reports generally between amateurs previously unknown to each other. Very short contacts are usually done only during contests while longer, extended ‘rag chews’ may be between newly met friends with some common interest or someone you have known for a long time.
Wikipedia has an entry for QSO, too.
My Issue With FT8 and WSJT-X
I have written in the past, on this website, about an issue that came about during the course of the development of the WSJT-X software package. The development team decided to widen the slice of ‘default’ (pre-programmed) frequencies on which to operate FT8. The issue was how the choice of new frequencies was made, and what choices were implemented in an upcoming software release. Read more about all of this, in these three articles:
+ Land (er, FREQUENCY) Grab (Part 1)
+ One Aspect of Amateur Radio: Good Will Ambassadors to the World
+ In Response — Can’t We All Just Get Along?
Has this issue been resolved? For now, yes. There appears to be more coordination between interested groups, and the proposed new frequencies were removed from the software defaults in WSJT-X. At least, up to this point, at the time of publishing this article.
Very interesting and informative. While the verbal diatribes continue for those FOR and AGAINST digital modes, I continue to make plents of QSOs around the world on all bands with modest power and antennas.
other alternatives to main DIGI software WSJT(-X) is JTDX (https://jtdx.tech) and MSHV (http://lz2hv.org/mshv),
and one usefull additional tool is GridTracker (https://gridtracker.org/)
Thanks for the good article … I would note independent of any thoughts on what a QSO is, or is not, the digital modes are for me the only “reasonable” way to connect considering my location (a valley), my equipment (not new/expensive), my antenna (short wire vertical ;-), and the time I can easily take for this hobby I enjoy.
Again, thank you.
I have recently returned to AR after a 30 odd year break. My QTH (suburbia) does not allow for large antennas or large output power due to close proximity to my neighbours. Also my geographical location, my remoteness (South West Western Australia) and the lack of fellow Amateurs within reasonable contact range has prompted me to look at FT8. I’m using an Elad FDM-DUO with WSJT-X on my PC. Without FT8 I’d be making no contacts at all! Especially at this low end of the sun spot activity. I did set my station up about 15 months ago and got disillusioned with it all, left it alone but made a push to learn FT8, just recently. Now I am back at it and enjoying radio again and making plans for improved limited space antennas and building a portable setup. Isn’t that what AR is all about? Thanks FT8. de VK6TW
Ive had my misgivings about ft8 at first, and i have even posted about them , but I have and am trying the mode out. Im mostly a CW operator but am having fun figuring out the charataristics of ft8 operators. Like when you have a good dx opening and are listing alot of DX stations in the activity window,you might find contacting a DX station is easier than state side due to everyone going after the DX kind of like the pileups on CW. Or when to click on a stations callsign when they cq or send 73s to the other station.I use EQSL for verification and I wish alot more hams used it. You have to verify your license by uploading your photo of it,etc.contacted australia last night which was a thrill even at 2:30 am here in Indiana.!!!.I was using the qrpguys afp-fsk digital transceiver III. putting out 1 1/2 watts into the ole meter. Iwas -24 and the australian station confirmed the contact. Wooo hooo. didnt bother to calculate the miles per watts but it definitely qualifies for 1000 miles per watt award or something. This is why im still at it with ft8.the more i learn to hunt and peck for what i want, like grid square, WAC, All france, WAS, etc just make ur list and start checking them off one by one. hardest stations i have yet to contact, are DELAWARE and ALASKA. Many time they would be on and you call cq on ft8 and after numerous times replying, no response ven though they are the ones sending CQ many many times. Frustrating yes, but fun in its own way.Remember folks its a hobby and ANYONE CAN OPERATE ANY MODE THEIR LICENSE ALLOWS. Those who dont like it,more power to you. Those who love it,more power to you too.
see you on the bands and if any delaware or alaska stations would like to meet up on a ft8 section of band,let me know and we will give it a try.I can run any band except 60 meters,since i dont do that band at all, 160 my antennas struggle to get a swr reading that wont fry the finals.HI HI
update. I worked Delaware and alaska but alaska stations i worked are not eqsl.cc members.tried the lotw scene but it seens its not worth it for me with the efforts just to get a confirmation from a stateside contacts. Been running CW,ft8 and some psk. have contacted 50 countries with 1/2 watt output pushing into a homemade vertical with no radials cut to 25 ft in length 3 ft above the ground.using an emtech zm-1 tuner. Not bad for 1/2 watts!!!